The Oppressed People of Kibra : A Nubian Perspective

Nuba woman near Kau, Nuba Mountains, Sudan
Nuba woman near Kau, Nuba Mountains, Sudan (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

British colonial government and the Nubian soldiers

When the British first came to Kenya, they brought with them conscripted soldiers from the Nuba area of the Sudan – whose descendants now live scattered in many areas in Kenya, but the majority of them are found in the slum area of Kibra in Nairobi.

After their arrival in Kenya the British possessed and exercised absolute sovereignty over what became known as the Kenya British Colony.

The British colonial government  allocated a land approximately 4000 acres set up as a military settlement for the Sudanese soldiers. This piece of land, which is the present Kibra, is on the outskirts of the city of Nairobi.

The vast land was then “empty”, uninhabited thick forest when the Nubians first occupied it.

English: Slum Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya.
English: Slum Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

This was the land that the colonial government gave as a gift to the ex-Sudanese soldiers in recognition of their distinguished service.

The Nubians knew how to survive there as they came to know the area so well. They divided the area into small villages and had names for each village in their own language(s).

They cultivated the land to produce food for themselves.

Kibra land survey and allocations

In the year 1933 a land commission was formed by the then British colonial government and was known as ” Carter Land Commission”, which set out policies on land uses and acquisition. The Kibra land case was particularly mentioned in this report where special consideration was given to the area.

In the year 1934, a plan of  “location survey of buildings and agricultural lands”  was prepared which showed the numbered plots allocated to the ex-Sudanese soldiers and their descendants.

These plots were considered in the same category as any rural ancestral land around the country and therefore subject to being accorded appropriate security of tenure ownership document.

Broken agreement

When people “treatied” or “agreed” with one another, on whatever agreement with one another, each party’s interest, its pride and its word were at stake. The word  used in this case “agreed” (to give this piece of land to the ex-Sudanese soldiers as a gift) was given in a very sacred way and should not have been very easily broken.

Rewriting history

The present authority appear to have distorted the history about Kibra. It is difficult to find written document about this piece of land.

In the early years when the then British colonial government recognized and handed over the land to the ex-soldiers, the crown of the Great Britain must have laid down a process in the proclamation that set forth the policy on this particular piece of Kibra land. To my knowledge, that policy has not been revoked at any time. In the proclamation, the Colonial government must have recognized that  any land possessed or given to a certain individual or group would be reserved for them until they ceded that land back to the authority.

In the Carter Land Commission of 1933 report lies a proclamation that could be regarded as the first major  legal link between the Kibra Nubians and and the Kenya government. And by virtue of that proclamation, it can be said that Kibra is legally an area reserved for Nubians.

Non-committal

The history on the settlement of Kibra has shown that the successive Kenya governments have continued to disregard the plight of the Nubian community. The oppression of this marginalized community is about the denial of security of land tenure and the citizenship rights.

On the other hand, why have the successive British governments maintain a non-committal stance on this matter?

 

 

The Giant Tusks – Historical Land Mark in Mombasa

Tusks in Mombasa
Tusks in Mombasa (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mombasa City

Is the name Mombasa new to you? If the answer is yes, then here is a short description of the place:

Mombasa is a major coastal city  in Kenya – famous in the tourism circle. It is the second important city in Kenya after Nairobi. Mombasais also the largest modern port in East Africa.

But most importantly, the name Mombasa features very prominently in the world history – it is this coastal city  that was used as the headquarters when the Portuguese and the Arabs occupied and ruled  these parts of East Africa in the 16 – 18th century.

The monument tusks

Having described this famous city  Mombasa, when one is visiting, and happen to drive or walk along the main street to the port of Mombasa, called Moi Avenue, (used to be know as Kilindini Road), one will not miss to see the extra ordinary  ‘ elephant tusks’ (man made of course). The two pairs of the crossed tusks stand astride the dual carriage way Moi Avenue.

These structures are the ceremonial arcs built in 1953 to commemorate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth ll . It is a famous land mark in this city.

The erection o this monument must have some connection with the death of the Queen’s father in 1952. The Queen happened to be on a visit to Kenya, (not in Mombasa), when she received the news about her father’s death

Condition of the tusks

What prompted me to write this article is the poor state of condition these metal structures were in when I recently walked along the Mombasa Moi avenue.

The metal structures showed corrosion (rusting) occurring on the lower sides. Large indentations can also be seen on these lower parts apparently  caused by vehicle accidents. The locks to the manway covers on the bottom sides are missing making the inside accessible  the street children and other irresponsible citizens who throw debris in these parts. These dirt cause rusting of the metals when dump.

Why I wrote this article

I wrote this article mainly to create awareness.

I believe that the article will raise concern among those who care and value preservation of history for the benefit of the future generations.

It is also my intention to remind the local authority charged with the maintenance of such important monuments to be more vigilant.

I must also remember to thank the British and American navy personnel who from time to time in the past spent their efforts and time repairing this monument whenever their war ships   called at the port of Mombasa.

Lastly, but not least I feel privileged having mentioned in my blog an event connected with the name of her majesty The Queen on England.

Writing this article was never meant for making money. However, the donation will help me cover my blogging expenses in the long journey I intend to make advocating for the reforms of the marginalized minority and engaging in community matters

Donations can be made via PayPal using the button below.

 

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Community Strategic Plan

English: SWOT analysis diagram in English lang...
English: SWOT analysis diagram in English language. Français : Matrice SWOT en anglais. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

KIBRA TODAY

COMMUNITY STRATEGIC PLAN

SWAT ANALYSIS

EXAMINING OUR

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

PASSION: Lets develop passion to have progressive Kibra.

Passion is a very simple and yet a very important word. The word means ” a strong feeling of love or anger”. What you really are can be seen by where your passion lies. Passion is the ingredient that makes transformation possible.

It is said that skill provides you options while passion pushes you to pursue options – ignore passion and forget progress.

So we want to transform as a community! To begin the process of transformation, we must have an accurate assessment of who we are, where we are, and where we want to be. Hence turning to SWOT analysis.

First, let’s look at our Kibra passionately:

  1. We all know that there is a great “passion” among our community for our Kibra. People love the ambiance, the natural setting, the country side, the history, the heritage and much more. These feelings have unfortunately, been largely destroyed by the politics of this country.
  2. There is a strong sense of community. We are proud of ourselves, our community organizations and our neighbourhoods.
  3. There is a sense of entrenchment. As people say, “we all love progress, it’s the change we hate”.
  4. None the less. We recognize the opportunity in pursuing fresh ideas/attitudes. There is a desire to create a new vision plan for the future and coordinate efforts among the community.
  5. Too much focus on issues and weaknesses. We need to promote our strengths among ourselves. Then we will be better be able to present our strengths to visitors and others outside our community.
  6. There are specific issues that are foremost in our minds:
    1. To unite each one of us so that we speak from the same voice.
    2. To get the tittle deed for our land.
    3. To protect our quality of life and address the well being of our people.
  7. There are strengths to build upon and opportunities to pursue:
    1. Co-ordinating the talents and energies of our people to achieve a common vision.
    2. Arts, culture, recreation and leisure
    3. Heritage
    4. Under-utilized resources
    5. Honesty
  8. Our people are knowledgeable, experienced and brimming with interesting and innovative ideas. The challenge is to make good use of these valuable resources.

Some SWOT ideas by topics:

  1. Arts, Culture and Recreation

Strengths . Community spirit and pride

. History: rich historical background

. First community to settle in Nairobi

Weaknesses . Community lacks tradition of volunteering their time and talent for the benefit of

Its people.

. Lack of broad vision, policy and leadership for culture and recreation

. No organised programs for community culture and recreation.

. Lack of funding to carry out such programs.

. Knowledge of community about culture or events is poor; need better communi-

Cattion.

. Limited or no opportunities for recreation.

Opportunities . Planning, developing facilities for culture and recreation.

. Acquiring facilities for such

Threats . No volunteers coming forward.

. Lack of funds.

  1. Economic Development : Labour Market/ Training

    Strengths . People: educated, diverse, young

    . Community networks and organizations

    Weaknesses . Lack of broad vision and common goals

    . Not addressing needs of neediest

    . Lack of linkages between employers, training agencies

    . No involvement in small businesses

    Opportunities . Focus on small businesses

    . Focus on growth sectors: tourism, use our crafts, Tabaga, Kuta, Birish

    . Increased partnership activity : refocus/expand role of existing edu-

    cational facilities

    . Build stronger links with NGOs, business communities

    Threats . Competition for employment and businesses with other communities

    . ” Status Quo Thinking “

  2. Our Neighbourhoods

    Strengths . Neighbourhood identities and strong traditions

    . People : diversity, good mix of age, interests

    . Facilities : affordable (own) housing

    Weaknesses . No recreational facilities

    . Most houses are temporary structures, no insurerence

    . Increasing costs leading to affordability problems

    . Growing gaps between “Haves and Have Nots”

    . Lack of common vision/goals between community

    . Lack of vibrant neighbourhood

    Opportunities . Associations, events, planning, communications.

  3. Community Services : Education, Health and other Instiyutions

    Strengths . Educational infrastructure

    . Strong base of institutions/ programs

    Weaknesses . Working in ” Silos “

    . Not communicating with ” ordinary people “

    . Not6 connecting with neighbourhoods

    . Not focusing on children early enough, infant pre-school programming lacking, need


    Parenting supports.

    Opportunities . Aging population : skills and experience can be tapped.

    . New partnerships, roles and approaches

    . Plan and evaluate programs and policies from health perspective

    . Increased focus on early years of life: parenting skills and support.

    Threats . Resources required : funding expertise etc.

  1. Community Services : Role of Non-profit Organizations

    Strengths . People : volunteers, community organizations

    . Generosity of the community

    . Seniors/retirees : education, experience and skills to offer

    Weaknesses . Aging population : can we4 meet needs? Lose active volunteers

    . Gap in meeting needs, lack of funding, lack of assessment of needs,

    Lack of coordination – identify NGO to work with

    . Lack of long range funding

    . Underestimating ( not aware of magnitude of ) needs of those in poverty

    Opportunities . Establish link or coordination with NGO

    . Community work by youth/students, get them into community service early enough,

    (not activists)

    . ” corporate giving has no place to but up”

    Threats . Government abandoning responsibilities and dumping onto NGO

  1. Youth

    Strengths . Youth : diverse, educated, with new skills, can help each other

    . Supportive community organizations : Boys clubs, Girls clubs etc.

    Weaknesses . Lack of social, cultural recreational facilities

    . Lack of training to large percentage of youth – access to employment

    . Lack of understanding and trust to our young people by general public

    . Involvement in drug abuse, thuggery

    . No programs and funding for supports to youth : counselling, healthcare

Etc.

. Lack of vision that recognises importance of youth to community future

Opportunities . Focus on community needs and sustainable development

. Establish funding for youth needs

. Link educational/training services and facilities to youth

. Take advantage of youth skills; technology, creative arts

. Match older workers with youth as mentors

. Increase focus on youth

Threats . Increasing gap between ” Haves and Have-nots “

. Increasing homeless among youth

  1. Seniors

    Strengths . People : friendly, cultured and diverse

    . Quality of life : natural, vibrancy of community, mid-class/low class, family

Life,

. Upholding cultures of the community

. Influential to community youth

Weaknesses . Lack of targeted facilities for recreation and leisure ; need seniors centre

. No comfortable permanent housing

. Contributions of seniors to community recognised and appreciated?

. Enough home care for the aged?

. Not enough or lack of coordination of information ; services, programs,

Cultural activities etc.

Opportunities . Take advantage of increasing number of seniors as an increasing base of

Potential volunteers for community groups and activities

. Use seniors expertise in consulting field.

Threats . Incidence of poverty among older seniors and particularly women

. Lack of access to healthcare

. Lack of long term focus/vision in the community

. What do we know about future of this demographic group

. Increased sense of loneliness among seniors as support networks weaken

Among families, friends, neighbourhoods.

  1. Housing

    Strengths . Land available for housing development

    . Own houses.

Weaknesses . Government still unwilling to give Kibra land back to Nubian community

. Lack of capital for affordable housing projects once title deed is obtained

. Lack of identification of partner from private sector to participate in housing project.

Opportunities . Form task force to develop strategy ready for implementation

. Build partnership with non-profit organisations to address issues concerning low

Cost households.

Threats . Slow approval process by the government of the Kibra land title is abarrier

. Unwillingness to give the land to the community.

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Nubian IDPs in Kenya

English: Nairobi (Kenya) Skyline from the city...
English: Nairobi (Kenya) Skyline from the city center, 2005 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
English: Slum Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya.
English: Slum Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

This blog is about the Nubians Internally Displaced Persons in Kibra, on the outskirt of Nairobi, Kenya.

Definition of IDP

Persons or group of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of, or in order to avoid the effect of armed conflict, situation of generalized violence.

Nubians occupied Kibra, a 4000 acre piece of land on the outskirt of Nairobi – the capitol city of Kenya since mid 19th century. Nairobi was not the capitol city at the time. The land was given as a gift to the Sudanese soldiers who were brought to Kenya by the then British colonial government.

However, lack of security of tenure for the Kibra land has been used to push them away from their surveyed plots to give way to ‘ sputtering ‘ housing upgrading projects that have hardly benefited the Nubian community, as majority of them became landless and homeless.

These demolitions and evictions took place between 1968 and 2001, to give way to the following development projects:

. Jamhuri estate in 1968

. Otiende estate        1968 – 1979

. Salama and Fort Jesus     1963 – 1969

. Olympic estate  1968

. Ayany  estate  1977 – 1980

Persons displaced by development projects have special needs precisely because of their displacement. They may require special protection in cases where they are forcibly displaced without resettlement, compensation or respect for human rights. This is true whether they are in camps or merged into urban slums. This is true in the case of the displaced Nubians in Kibra.

Writing this article was never meant for making money. However,  the donation will help me cover my blogging expenses in the long journey I intend to make advocating for the reforms of the marginalized minority, and engaging in community matters.

Donation can be made via PayPal using the button below.   

 

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Nubians Kibra Life – Past and Present

 

In the 19th century, the British established the British East Africa territory which comprised the land which sits astride the equator, which is today’s Kenya.

English: A Ten Cent and One Cent British East ...
English: A Ten Cent and One Cent British East Africa piece from 1952(10) and 1924 (1). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

To be able to settle in these new found territories, the British brought with them soldiers from other parts of the world, which included soldiers from the Sudan. This was done to ensure their security. And these soldiers later fought alongside the British army in the first
se soldiers were a formidable force and and second world wars.
These Sudanese soldiers were the spine of the early British army in this part of the world.
The Sudanese soldiers mentioned above were the Nubians settled in a military reserve in Kibra, which is located on the outskirts of the city of Nairobi, after conscription from the British army.
The Kibra land was a gift to the Sudanese soldiers in recognition to their distinguished service.

What kind of life did the Nubians live?

The first Nubians who settled in Kibra lived a communal life similar to the medieval village life. A village life consisting of a population comprised mostly of farmers, houses, barns, sheds and animal pens, clustered around. This was surrounded by ploughed fields and pastures.
This village was a home for the Nubians. Most were born, toiled, married, had children and died within the village. Most rarely venturing beyond its boundaries.
The Nubians had their own language, dress code, cuisine, ceremonies, ( birth, circumcision, wedding, etc ), dances, arts and artifacts.
The typical Nubian house architecture featured four bedrooms, a visitor room, a large sitting room, with large windows overlooking flower/tree gardens on the outside. The kitchen was located on one side at the back, while the bathrooms and pit latrines were on the other.
The houses were built with poles and wooden planks and frames bought from forest owners around Kibra.
The roofs of the houses were made from flattened oil tins and oil drums, (typically 20 lt kerosene containers were used in those days).
The walls of these houses were made of mud, and cow dung collected from the livestock keepers around. The wall finishing was so smooth that it had the appearance of cement plaster. These walls were often patterned with flower paintings that made them very attractive. Some of those houses, over 90 years old, are still standing there today.
Vegetable gardens and farms for other crops and livestock were developed further away from the main house.

Recreational facilities.

Kibra had enough recreational facilities, particularly playing grounds for children. These grounds were also used for wedding ceremonies and other communal activities. For indoor activities a central hall was built in the centre of the village, which was also used as a cinema.

Post independence life.

Life in Kibra changed gradually after Kenya attained independence in 1963 from outside influences. New comers from outside Kibra for economic and political reasons. By 1980s and 1990s, the number of outsiders grew so big. The Nubians then became a small minority in the ratio 1 to 12.

Changes in sociocultural environment.

The big inflow of outsiders in Kibra had a bad effect. It is known that social and cultural influences cause changes in attitudes, beliefs, norms, customs and lifestyle. Inability of the Nubians in Kibra to foresee changes in these areas and react timely was devastating.

Challenge facing the Nubians.

The biggest challenge now facing the Nubians of Kibra is whether the government of Kenya will honor the promise of giving the Kibra land ownership documentation.


Writing this article was never about making money. However, the donation I plead for is to help me cover my blogging expenses in the long journey I intend to make advocating for the reforms of the marginalized minority, and also in engaging in other community matters.

 Donation can be made via PayPal using the button below.

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Nubian Culture

Culture and society

This blog is about the culture of Nubian community who live in East Africa, particularly in Kenya. The writer has sensed the danger of dwindling in the values or activity of the Nubian culture in this area.

What is culture?

Culture can be described as the way of life of a particular society or a group of people including pattern of thought, belief, behavior, customs, traditions, rituals, dress and language, as well as art, music and literature.
Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but is a fragile phenomenon. It is constantly changing and is easily lost because it is not written.
Nubians need to keep their traditions and culture alive so that they can continue to pass it on from one generation to another.
To revive the Nubian culture and make it vibrant, the starting point would probably be to borrow from the work of Craig Constantine and continue to build up from there.
The art exhibition is one way of viewing their identity and its contribution to the entire Nubian heritage over the course of history.
Nubians can start a local gallery and display paintings and photography on the walls of the exhibition gallery.
. Paintings and photographs of their traditional houses.
. Colorful traditional Nubian clothing.
. Photographs of, and display of traditional hand woven bag, baskets, mats and other accessories.
. Stylish braiding of women hair.
. Nubian musical instruments, etc.

 

Writing this article was never about making money. However, the small donation I plead for is for helping me cover blogging expenses in the long journey I intend to make advocating for reforms of the marginalized minority,  and also engaging in other community matters.

Donation can be made via PayPal using the button below.

 

 

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The Voice of the Marginalized People

Marginalized people of Kibra

Kibra is an area on the outskirt of Nairobi, the capitol city of Kenya. This piece of land, measuring approximately 4100 acres was a reward given to the Nubian soldiers by the then British colonial government. The Nubian soldiers fought alongside the British army from the 19th century up to the two world wars of 1914 and 1945.
Although the politics of this country has changed Kibra to what it is now, the largest slum in Africa. The Nubians who live in Kibra, which is their home, are now a small minority in the ratio of 1 to 12, after their land was invaded by outsiders brought in by selfish politicians.

The Nubians still cherish and have passion for Kibra, even with the faint hope of obtaining the land ownership document from the government. And even as the number of poor and excluded people among the community is increasing rapidly.

Expression of Passion for Kibra
1. We all know that there is a great ‘passion’ among our community for out Kibra. People love the ambiance, the natural setting, the country side, the history, the heritage and much mote. These feelings have unfortunately been largely destroyed by the politics of this country.
2. There is a strong sense of community. We ate proud of ourselves, our community organizations and our neighborhoods.
3. There is a sense of entrenchment. As people say, ‘we all love progress, it is the change we hate’.
4. Nonetheless, we recognize the opportunity in pursuing fresh ideas/ attitudes. There is a desire to create a new vision, plan for the future and coordinate efforts across the community.
5. Too much focus on issues and weaknesses. We need to promote our strengths among ourselves. Then we will be better able to present our strengths to visitors and others outside our community.
6. There are specific issues that are foremost in our minds:
a. To unite our people so that we speak from same voice.
b. To get the ownership documents for the Kibra land.
c. To protect our quality of life and address the well being of our people.
7. There are strengths to build upon in the community and opportunities to pursue:
a. Coordinating the talents and energies of our people to achieve a common vision.
b. To promote our arts, culture, recreation and leisure
c. Heritage.
d. Under utilized resources
e. Honesty.
8. Our people are knowledgeable, experienced and brimming with interesting and innovative ideas. The challenge is to make good use of these valuable resources.

Donation

Writing this article was never about making money. However, the small donation I plead for is for helping me cover blogging expenses in the long journey I intend to make advocating for reforms of the marginalized minority,  and also engaging in other community matters.

Donation can be made via PayPal using the button below.

 

 

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Access to New Media by Minority Groups

English: Professor Alex Jones (Harvard Kennedy...
English: Professor Alex Jones (Harvard Kennedy School) giving a lecture about the role of media in social change. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Marginalized / minority groups are urged to use new technology to drive social change

The marginalized / minority tribes in Kenya, and indeed all over Africa and the World are urged to use the new technology to connect with people internationally to fight and drive away the social evil they are facing in the name of marginalization.

Through community forums these groups could use the technologies which include mobile platforms and the internet which can now be used for promoting democratic practices, civic participation, learning, and youth empowerment. Also can be used for economic and social entrepreneurship among other issues.

Empower young people

The communities should put more emphasis on young people who are particularly receptive to new technologies and adopt to its demands with clarity when given the chance.

Youth can use the technology to engage in human right activities.

 

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My History – Personal Portfolio

Personal portfolio

I do not consider myself a special person – rather an ordinary mid-class person, born from a poor family, and brought up in a slum. This slum happen to be the third largest slum in the world today- Kibera slum.

In my childhood days, I was an above-average student in primary school.  In the school I did not have many friends, thus I was lucky not to get bad influence from bad students.

Just before I was ready to move to secondary school, my parents separated (divorced) and I had to be moved to live with my grand parents (paternal).

This was the beginning of experiencing a harsh life, because of missing my parent’s love and that the environment and the living style had changed completely. My grand parents did not go to school and were obviously completely illiterate – although of course they understood what school is.

However, I had to struggle with my secondary education for five  years until I completed.

When I talk about harsh time during my school time, one has to understand a bit of history of the less developed countries of Africa, one has to know what slums are and how people live there – life which is in-imaginable to people from developed countries. ( look out for my next blog on slum dwellers ).

As I said above, the hardship is not imaginable. For example I had to walk approximately 10 kilometers to school and back home every day, going without lunch most of the time.

However I took my studies with the seriousness it deserved, reading at night  using kerosene lamp. This way I was able to pass my secondary examination and obtain a grade which allowed me to continue with my studies at university level.

But alas! would that be possible? No, my poor father would not afford to pay for my university education with a salary equivalent to $ 7 per month. I was obviously upset and bitter, but that was the reality.

However, being determined as I was to have good education, I did not lose hope, with a bit of struggle I was able to enroll myself in a Polytechnic run with assistance from the British and German governments. My joining the Polytechnic was made possible by sponsorship from an international cement factory in Mombasa.

In my 5 years of study at the Polytechnic I was able to obtain a Mechanical Engineering certificate to the level of Ordinary Diploma in Engineering.

By this time my father was very old and retired from work – no pension.

At this stage, although I was eligible to join a university, I was not able to do so because of lack of money and no one to sponsor me.

What else could I do except hunting for a job and earn salary and be able to care for my aged parents. This turned out to be a bit easy since I had an Engineering qualification. In those days there were v ery few people with engineering qualifications in this country.

I was employed by an International Petroleum Oil Company.

The country where I was born, and where I got employed is Kenya, in East Africa. And the company which employed me was The East African Oil Refinery. The Refinery was then being run and managed by Shell International Petroleum company whose headquarters was in the Netherlands.

I was employed as a junior Mechanical Engineering Inspector in a specialized section of Inspection. Due to the special nature of of work in this section, I had to be sent overseas for training. My first overseas assignment was in England at Shell Stanlow Petroleum Refinery, for a period of 3 years. And my second working assignment was in Australia, at Shell Clyde Refinery, for a period of 2 years. I then returned to Mombasa Refinery and was elevated to the post of Senior Mechanical Inspector. I have now retired from work.

I learn t about computers in Australia, and developed love for computers since then. After my retirement I sent some of my money to buy 4 computers for use in a Cyber Cafe which I owned. This idea did not work well and I abandoned it after about 18 months.

I then decided to venture in blogging which I am now doing all the time. With friends all around me, I am sure of getting all the help I need.

I wrote this blog as a short history of my life, which, I hope defines who I am.

Thank you.

Writing this article was never about making money. However, the small donation I plead for is for helping me cover blogging expenses in the long journey I intend to make advocating for reforms of the marginalized minority,  and also engaging in other community matters.

Donation can be made via PayPal using the button below.

 

 

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